OOPs (Object Oriented Programming System)

Object means a real word entity such as pen, chair, table etc. Object-Oriented Programming is a methodology or paradigm to design a program using classes and objects. It simplifies the software development and maintenance by providing some concepts:

  • Object
  • Class
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation

Object: Any entity that has state and behavior is known as an object. For example: chair, pen, table, keyboard, bike etc. It can be physical and logical.

Class: Collection of objects is called class. It is a logical entity.

Inheritance: When one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of parent object i.e. known as inheritance. It provides code re usability. It is used to achieve runtime polymorphism.

Polymorphism: When one task is performed by different ways i.e. known as polymorphism. For example: to convince the customer differently, to draw something e.g. shape or rectangle etc.

In C++, we use Function overloading and Function overriding to achieve polymorphism.

Abstraction: Hiding internal details and showing functionality is known as abstraction. For example: phone call, we don’t know the internal processing.

In C++, we use abstract class and interface to achieve abstraction.

Encapsulation: Binding (or wrapping) code and data together into a single unit is known as encapsulation. For example: capsule, it is wrapped with different medicines.

Advantage of OOPs over Procedure-oriented programming language:

  1. OOPs makes development and maintenance easier where as in Procedure-oriented programming language it is not easy to manage if code grows as project size grows.
  2. OOPs provide data hiding whereas in Procedure-oriented programming language a global data can be accessed from anywhere.
  3. OOPs provide ability to simulate real-world event much more effectively. We can provide the solution of real word problem if we are using the Object-Oriented Programming language.
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